The Best Whey Protein Powders For Vegans, Weight Loss, and More

We tried dozens of protein powders to find the eight best for your needs.

Expert Verified By: Hennis Tung, MS, RD
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With the click of a mouse, you can order any protein powder, and it’ll arrive at your doorstep in a matter of days. This is great news for you since protein is an essential macronutrient that repairs muscle tissue to help you gain strength, keeps you satiated, and balances your hormones. And boy, are people clicking their mouses.

In 2018, the global whey protein powder market was valued at $7.4 billion. Whey protein may be flying off of the shelves, that’s for sure. What isn’t for certain is which brand you should buy. There is a seemingly endless number of protein powder options, but some may not be suited for your goals or lifestyle. In contrast, others may be low-quality, which is why we tested out dozens of protein supplements, from the biggest supplement sellers to the little-known underdogs. Now, you’ll be able to make an educated protein selection.

The Best Whey Protein Powders

Editor’s note: The content on BarBend is meant to be informative in nature, but it should not be taken as medical advice. The opinions and articles on this site are not intended for the diagnosis, prevention, and/or treatment of health problems. It’s always a good idea to talk to your doctor before beginning a new fitness, nutritional, and/or supplement routine. 

Best Whey Protein Powders Video

You can also check out this video from BarBend, where former Nutrition Editor Nick English goes over a variety of protein powders and their benefits. 

[Related: 9 Types of Diets — How They Work and Pros & Cons]

Best Whey Protein Overall

Micropure is a balanced formula that offers protein on the higher end with minimal fat and a low dose of carbs. 

Kaged Muscle Micropure Whey Protein Isolate

A lot of whey protein powders offer high doses of protein while keeping fats and carbs to a minimum. In that regard, Micropure isn’t unique. However, Kaged Muscle produces their protein using an enzyme called ProHydrolase®, which breaks the protein down into small particles for, according to them, enhanced absorption and digestion. As a bonus, it also comes in seven delicious flavors — Vanilla, Chocolate, Cinnamon French Toast, Chocolate Peanut Butter, Coffee Latte, S’mores, and Natural Cinnamon Roll.

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Micropure Whey Protein Isolate
Micropure Whey Protein Isolate
Micropure Whey Protein Isolate

Kaged Muscle's whey protein isolate formula boasts a high 25 grams of protein, one gram of fat, and just four grams of carbs. It also contains an enzyme that breaks down the protein for optimal digestion.

Who Should Buy Micropure Whey Protein Isolate

  • Folks who have tummy trouble with proteins and want a faster-digesting formula. 
  • Anyone who likes flavor options. 
  • Athletes who want the most amount of protein with minimal fat and carbs. 

Who Shouldn’t Buy Micropure Whey Protein Isolate

  • Budget-conscious shoppers. Isolate formulas in general are more expensive, and this protein is no different. 
  • People who need more carbs or fats to supplement hard training sessions. 

This high-protein low-fat formula delivers pure protein that digests in a flash, making it perfect for folks who have trouble processing protein powders.

Best Clean Whey Protein

If you’re looking for a whey protein supplement that delivers just premium essentials, then look no further. Transparent Labs has you covered.

Transparent Labs 100% Grass-Fed Whey Protein Isolate 

Transparent Lab’s formula contains just four ingredients: grass-fed whey isolate, natural flavor, salt, and stevia. Transparent Labs is also one of the few brands on the market that offer a whey derived from grass-fed cattle in tandem with a minimal-additive formula. Grass-fed beef is thought to have higher iron, more nutrients and minerals, and a better healthy fat source. Their product contains zero fat, nothing artificial, and has an incredible 28 grams of protein per 120 calorie serving, with fewer than two grams of carbs. That said, fillers are sometimes added to help a shake mix more effectively, and so this whey’s mixability may be inconsistent. Also, Transparent Labs doesn’t offer a lot of flavor options if that matters to you.

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Transparent Labs Grass Fed Whey Isolate
Transparent Labs Grass Fed Whey Isolate
Transparent Labs Grass Fed Whey Isolate

Transparent Labs has made one of the most straightforward protein supplements we've ever seen. It's just grass-fed whey isolate, natural flavor, salt, and stevia, making this one a great option for people who want a protein supplement with no additives. Use code BARBEND10 for 10% off.

Who Should Buy Transparent Labs 100% Grass-Fed Whey Isolate

  • Customers who want a simple whey protein with no additives or extra ingredients.
  • Folks who want something very low in carbs and/or fat.
  • People looking for a grass-fed, simple protein that also tastes good.

Who Should Buy Transparent Labs 100% Grass-Fed Whey Isolate

  • If you want a huge variety of flavors, this might not be the one for you.
  • This is a reliable protein supplement, but the mixing can be somewhat inconsistent with no gums or thickeners.

Some people take issue with protein powders for the hard-to-read ingredient lists that accompany them. If you could benefit from protein but are cautious of lengthy labels, this pick is perfect as it’s transparent and clean. 

Related: Read our full review on Transparent Labs 100% grass-Fed Whey Isolate

Best Whey Protein Meal Replacement

What if you want a whey protein with plenty of micronutrients to nourish you as well? That’s where this product comes in.

Kaged Clean Meal

Whey protein is great for folks who want just protein and nothing else, but it’s not the most filling or nutritious option. If you’re on the hunt for a protein that offers more carbs and fats for muscle recovery, or a formula that can replace a standard meal, then this pick is your best bet. Depending on if you take two or three scoops, Clean Meal delivers either 270 or 360 calories, respectively. For three scoops, you get 42 grams of protein, 27 grams of carbs, and seven grams of fat. It also contains 21 vitamins and minerals and is made with real whole foods such as quinoa and oats. 

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KAGED Muscle Clean Meal
KAGED Muscle Clean Meal
KAGED Muscle Clean Meal

When you're on the go or trying to slam calories, Clean Meal boasts either 270 or 360 calories-worth of nutrition with balanced macros from whole food ingredients. Use code BARBEND10 for 10% off your purchase. 

Who Should Buy Kaged Clean Meal

  • Anyone who wants a protein powder that can replace an entire meal. 
  • Athletes who need more calories and carbs overall to recover from tough workouts. 
  • Folks on the go who need an easy-to-consume meal.

Who Shouldn’t Buy Kaged Clean Meal

  • People who use protein purely as a supplement and prefer to eat their carbs and fats.
  • Anyone who doesn’t want to drink their calories.
  • Lifters on a cut. You’re only allowed so many calories, and meal replacement drinks aren’t filling. 

You want your meal replacement powder to maintain a balanced macro profile that simply scales along with the calorie count. Clean Meal does, and, better yet, it’s formulated from whole food sources such as oats and quinoa. 

Best Sustainably-Sourced Whey Protein

Legion contains effective and transparently sourced ingredients, is free of potentially harmful fillers, and delivers on taste.

Legion Whey+ Protein 

Legion Whey+  contains zero artificial flavors and sweeteners, is GMO- and lactose-free, and uses whey from a traceable and sustainable source. It’s also higher in calcium and iron compared to other protein isolate powder. We like that Legion Whey+ mixes well in water and milk. It comes in various flavors: Salted Caramel, Mocha Cappuccino, Cinnamon Cereal, and Mint Chocolate, in addition to the normal variations of chocolate and vanilla you’ll often see from manufacturers. However, if you want to avoid soy or maltodextrin, then look elsewhere; this protein powder contains both of those ingredients. 

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Legion Whey+
Legion Whey+
Legion Whey+

An all natural, non-GMO, fat-free whey that's cheaper than many competitors. Use code "BARBEND" for 20% off!

Who Should Buy Legion Whey+

  • People who want an all-natural whey protein without sacrificing flavor or variety of flavors.
  • Customers who want higher amounts of essential vitamins and minerals, such as iron and calcium, in their shake.
  • Athletes on the go who want a smooth-mixing protein powder.
  • People who care about where their protein comes from. 

Who Shouldn’t Buy Legion Whey+

  • People who want to avoid maltodextrin at all costs. This is a common additive in many whey proteins to help with flavor, and Legion’s Whey+ does contain some. 
  • If you’re avoiding soy, you may want to look elsewhere. Whey+ contains a tiny amount of soy lecithin to help with mix-ability. 

For people who are environmentally-minded, Legion+ Whey ensures that their whey is sourced sustainably from American cows, with a protein-by-weight ratio of 88%. 

Related: Read our full review on Legion Whey+ Protein

Best Vegan Protein

Whey protein is the industry standard for protein supplementation, but it’s not easy on every athlete’s stomach. Also, whey is not vegan-friendly. Others may want to avoid whey due to potential spoilage (though this is rare if the right storage conditions are met) or unappealing smells/taste. 

Kaged Muscle Plantein

Kaged Muscle’s plant-based protein is made from peas and organic quinoa and packs 2.4 grams of BCAAs and 2.1 grams of leucine. Compared to other vegan protein powders, Plantein is pretty low in fats and carbs, boasting only four and five grams, respectively. While those numbers are a tad high compared to whey protein isolate formulas, it’s pretty comparable for a plant-based powder. You can buy this protein in three flavors — Peanut Butter Cookie, Banana Bread, and Cinnamon Roll — and it’s only available in 15-serving containers. 

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Kaged Muscle Plantein
Kaged Muscle Plantein
Kaged Muscle Plantein

This plant-based formula is made from pea protein and boasts a macronutrient profile similar to whey — 26 grams of protein, four grams of carbs, and five grams of fat. Use code BARBEND10 for 10% off your purchase. 

Who Should Buy Kaged Muscle Plantein

  • Plant-based eaters who want a vegan formula. 
  • Anyone who wants a vegan protein that closely resembles the macronutrient makeup of a whey protein powder.
  • Folks who like transparent ingredient labels.

Who Shouldn’t Buy Kaged Muscle Plantein

  • Anyone who wants a whey formula.
  • Folks who like flavors like chocolate or vanilla. This formula doesn’t have those basic choices.
  • People who like to buy in bulk. You can only get 15 servings at a time. 

It’s not uncommon for plant-based proteins to be higher in carbs and fats (due to the source ingredients), but Kaged Muscle’s macro profile is as close to whey as any plant-based protein we’ve seen. 

Best Whey For Weight Gain

If you want a whey with a few more calories and more energy, but you’re not interested in getting a wholly dedicated mass gainer, then go with this selection.

Promix Nutrition Grass-Fed Whey Isolate 

Here’s an all-natural whey that provides 155 calories in a scoop: 25 grams of protein, eight grams of carbs, one gram of fiber, and two-and-a-half grams of fat. (Note those macros vary based on the flavor you pick.) The whey comes from grass-fed cows, which is really important to many people as it’s better for the environment and is a little higher in healthful fatty acids. Note that even though coconut sugar sounds healthy, it’s essentially the same as standard sugar, which means you should steer clear if you’re on a low-carb diet. Also, it’s expensive.

Promix Nutrition Grass-Fed Whey Isolate
Promix Nutrition Grass-Fed Whey Isolate
Promix Nutrition Grass-Fed Whey Isolate

A grass-fed, undenatured whey that has some extra calories from all natural coconut sugar — nothing artificial in sight.

Who Should Buy Promix Nutrition Grass-Fed Whey Isolate

  • People who want all-natural protein; it’s grass-fed and free from artificial ingredients.
  • Folks who want a few extra calories with their whey without going overboard, the carbs help give you energy, and any athlete is probably consuming more carbs than protein throughout the day.

Who Shouldn’t Buy Promix Nutrition Grass-Fed Whey Isolate

  • Anyone who wants to avoid added sugar. Coconut sugar is a little higher in antioxidants than cane sugar, but there’s no real practical difference.
  • Those on low-carb diets.
  • Penny pinchers; it’s pricier than conventional whey.

Not quite a mass-gainer but not quite a whey protein, this hybrid formula is perfect for folks who want to bulk up but still eat mostly whole foods. 

Best Value Hydrolyzed Whey Protein 

When it comes down to it, most proteins will offer just about the same muscle-building benefits. That said, price is a significant factor for many folks, and we think that Dymatize offers one of the best quality hydrolyzed proteins at a competitive price. 

Dymatize ISO 100

Why Dymatize? Besides the fact that it tastes great with water — some may find it too sweet — the first ingredient in the product is hydrolyzed whey protein. We dive deeper into the science further down this article, but the long and short of it is that hydrolyzed whey absorbs faster than other forms. That’s because enzymes partly break it down. 

Dymatize ISO 100
Dymatize ISO 100
Dymatize ISO 100

A protein powder that delivers a fast-absorbing version of whey protein isolate to promote muscle recovery.

Who Should Buy Dymatize ISO 100

  • People who like mixing whey with water; these shakes taste great on their own.
  • Low-fat dieters; there’s no fat at all (or maybe 0.5 grams) in most of the flavors.

Who Shouldn’t Buy Dymatize ISO 100

  • People who are looking for all of their whey to be hydrolyzed; while it’s the first ingredient, there’s also some regular isolate here.
  • For folks without sweet teeth; the product is really quite sweet. That’s why it’s great with water.

If you’re a serious lifter who desires the low-fat, low-carb formula that isolate protein offers but can’t deal with the sticker shock, then this is the pick for you. 

Related: Read our full review on Dymatize ISO 100

Best Whey for Weight Loss

Protein is filling, but what if there was even more to it to help curb your appetite? This product sounded a little fanciful, but we could tell it was different when we tried it out.

Disclaimer: Please note that none of these products describe themselves as weight loss supplements and should not be taken as such. Please consult with a medical professional before beginning any weight loss protocol.

FitMiss Delight

Because of its ingredient profile, FitMiss Delight was our favorite protein for weight loss. It’s very low in calories, offering just 90 calories, 20 grams of protein, one-and-a-half grams of fat, and three grams of carbs. That protein may be lower than you want, however. It also contains a hefty dose of greens powder for extra antioxidants. Still, the most impressive ingredient is SolaThin™, a protein made from potatoes shown to help boost satiety. The flavor options are limited, and this powder contains a low amount of micronutrients and a higher amount of artificial sweeteners. 

FitMiss Delight Protein Powder
FitMiss Delight Protein Powder
FitMiss Delight Protein Powder

A tasty protein powder that provides ingredients for muscle recovery and satiation.

Who Should Buy FitMiss Delight

  • For people who struggle with hunger. The potato extract really does produce more satiety than other protein powders with more calories. (That’s in our own anecdotal experience — talk to your doctor before taking new supplements.)
  • For those who want as few calories as possible. It’s rare to see a protein powder that’s under 100 per serving.
  • Anyone who likes the idea of greens powders. This product is made with a blend of powdered broccoli, barley grass, artichoke, and more fruits and veggies to help boost the antioxidant profile. 

Who Shouldn’t Buy FitMiss Delight

  • Those who like vanilla. FitMiss only has a Vanilla Chai flavor, which has a more pungent taste. 
  • People avoiding soy or artificial sweeteners.
  • Don’t expect many vitamins and minerals because there are powdered greens; there’s a ton of B12 but very few other micronutrients.

Your caloric intake will always dictate which way the scale tips, but this protein can help curb hunger so you’re less likely to indulge in unnecessary calories. 

Related: Read our full review on FitMiss Delight Protein Powder

The Benefits of Whey Protein Powder

Protein powders usually offer a higher protein concentration than food, but they may also lack other nutrients that naturally accompany proteins found in meat, fish, dairy, and whole grains. Protein from food offers vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, and healthy fats often unavailable in protein powder. We would never recommend that you take protein powder as a complete protein substitute — just a dietary supplement.

whey protein powders
Tacar/Shutterstock

[Related: Should Athletes Consume Soy at All?]

There’s plenty of debate among bodybuilders and strength athletes alike about whether a post-workout shake significantly improves recovery and muscle growth.

Some research suggests that taking a protein shake after you work out might be better for muscle gain than whole foods. A study published in Physiological Reports suggests that taking 40 grams of whey protein is better than 20 grams, so maybe you should have two protein shakes. (1) Another study suggests pre-workout protein is even more important. (2) As for the type of protein you should consume, does it have to be whey? Brian St. Pierre, MS, RD, at Precision Nutrition told us:

Whey protein has an incredibly high biological value, incredibly high leucine content, and it’s digested rapidly so you get this quick rise in muscle protein synthesis. And if you look at short term studies, two hours after a workout you see this rapid rise in protein synthesis with whey more so than soy.

Leucine is linked with muscle protein synthesis, and whey is super high in leucine, according to a 2012 protein comparison published in Nutrition & Metabolism. (3)(4)

[Related: What’s the Difference Between Grass-Fed Whey Vs. Regular Whey?]

If you’re regularly engaging in strenuous exercise, you need to calculate your macros and consume a relatively large amount of protein (and calories overall) to build muscle, recover properly, and get stronger for the next workout. Whey is a fantastic way to do that.

How We Decide the Best

It may look uncomplicated, but assessing the key differences between different protein powders is no easy task. It’s important to emphasize that some of the areas we note below aren’t necessarily good or bad. Some athletes prefer foods without artificial sweeteners, and some try to limit soy. That said, there’s not much evidence that either has adverse effects; we simply point them out if they’re a problem for you. Here are the ingredients and factors we took into consideration when putting together this guide.

best whey protein powders

[Related: We Decide the Best Optimum Nutrition Gold Standard Whey Flavor]

Type of Protein Powders

Whey proteins typically contain one or more of three kinds of protein: concentrate, isolate, and/or hydrolysate. They each have their own pros and cons: whey concentrate is cheaper and extracted with an enzyme or acid; whey isolate has fewer fat and carbs; hydrolyzed whey digests more quickly and could be safer for those with allergies. All of this is taken into account. 

Protein Per Calorie

A gram of protein has four calories, and many measure the protein density of a supplement by how many calories it provides per gram. If a shake offers 25 grams of protein, then you’re getting 100 calories (if there aren’t any added carbs and fat.) To keep calories lower, you typically want a protein powder with fewer grams of carbs and fats. So, pay attention to this number.

Sweeteners

We’re not taking a stance on whether artificial sweeteners are unhealthy, but we can’t ignore that many athletes prefer to avoid them. To that end, we’ll point out the presence of aspartame, sucralose, acesulfame potassium, and anything else used to sweeten the product like stevia or sugar alcohols, which can cause digestive issues among a small portion of the population.

whey protein shake
Syda Productions/Shutterstock

[Related: Everything You Need to Know to Build Your First Workout Program]

Protein Powder Additives

Some people avoid soy at all costs, but soy is a trendy addition to protein supplements as a means to improve mixability. Perhaps you have issues with thickeners and stabilizers like xanthan gum or carrageenan, which can cause digestive discomfort. Again this is about your preference, but we take these ingredients into account.

Protein Powder Taste

Chalky, smooth, sweet, earthy, bitter…there are many ways a powder can taste. We consider the real taste test to be how a protein powder tastes with water — it’s not as hard to make something that tastes good with milk.

Protein Powder Price

We’re talking about protein powder, so the value is in the protein. Cost per pound or per serving means less than the price per gram of protein, which is why you’re buying it. The average whey protein powder is between four and five cents per gram of protein, and the cost is affected by the type of whey powder, additives, protein density, and other factors.

What’s In Your Protein Powder?

Here’s a guide to the most common ingredients you’re likely to find in a tub.

Whey Concentrate, Isolate, or Hydrolysate

Usually a byproduct of cheesemaking, whey concentrate is the cheapest form and contains the most fat and carbs, including lactose. Whey isolate has been processed through a microfilter and results in fewer carbs and less fat, sometimes none at all. In contrast, hydrolysate (aka hydrolyzed whey) has been further broken down with enzymes, so it digests the fastest.

Casein

Sometimes included with whey protein powders, casein is the other protein found in milk. (Milk protein is about 80% casein, 20% whey.) Used to make cheese — it’s not a byproduct of cheesemaking, it is the product — casein digests more slowly and is more filling. It also thickens really easily, so it’s great for making protein puddings and “ice cream.”

Artificial Sweeteners

Protein powders almost always contain either sucralose or acesulfame potassium, as they’re widely recognized as safe for human consumption. The FDA recommends a daily limit of 15 milligrams fo artificial sweeteners.

[Related: The Best Types of Supplements on the Market Worth Your Money]

Lecithin

This is a fatty substance used to improve mixability. Lecithin is usually made from soy, but sometimes you’ll find the more expensive sunflower lecithin in products that are more geared toward the soy-phobic Paleo crowd. There’s no good reason to fear soy lecithin unless you have an allergy or sensitivity — reams of research has found no correlation between soy ingestion and reduced testosterone or muscle mass. (5)(6)

Digestive Enzymes

Protease helps break down proteins, lipase fat, amylase carbs, lactase lactose, and there are a few enzyme blends you’ll find like Aminogen®, found in many Optimum Nutrition products. Some interesting evidence suggests they might help to increase the absorption rate and reduce the risk of indigestion. (7)

What to Know Before You Buy Protein Powder

Protein powder is just dehydrated milk with some sweeteners, but it’s easy to get overwhelmed by the process of buying a whey protein powder. Here are the most important things to keep in mind.

Whey Concentrate Might Not Be Great for Those With Lactose Sensitivities

It’s the cheapest form and has the most calories, but whey concentrate isn’t bad: the difference is usually two or three grams of protein when compared to isolate. But concentrate does contain lactose. It’s not a lot but consider buying a hydrolyzed whey — which is typically easier on the stomach — if you’re really sensitive.

[Related: The Best Supplements for Bodybuilding]

Hydrolyzed Whey Probably Isn’t Worth the Price

It’s the most expensive form of whey, and yes, some studies have found it useful for athletes who work out twice per day and need to recover really fast. However, for the average person, it won’t make a practical difference. A caveat here is that hydrolyzed whey is so broken down that it’s usually the whey of choice for people with milk allergies. (8) (If you have a milk allergy or any food allergy for that matter, consult with your doctor before taking a protein powder.) The downsides of hydrolyzed whey — one of which being that it’s more expensive and tastes worse — probably aren’t worth it to most people.

Don’t Worry About Soy Lecithin

The vast majority of protein powders contain a dash of soy lecithin because it helps to improve mixability. As noted in the previous section, no satisfactory evidence has found that the tiny amount of plant estrogen found in soy lecithin has any effect on human hormones. (And note that if you’d rather avoid plant estrogen, you’ll also need to cut out coffee, oatmeal, apples, and a lot of other foods, too.)

Grass-Fed Whey Won’t Have a Practical Difference to Your Health

Grass-fed dairy is indeed higher in antioxidants and healthful fats, like Omega-3s and CLA, than regular dairy. (9)(10) That said, whey has almost all of the fat taken out of it anyways. For context, people supplement with one or two grams of Omega-3s when consciously trying to consume more. Whey has about three grams of fat, and less than five percent are polyunsaturated fats. Even less of that fat Omega-3. (11) The same dosage goes for CLA, of which you’d find 0.06 grams in a scoop of grass-fed whey. (10) Grass-fed cows probably live happier lives with more time spent outdoors, which is a valid reason to prefer it. But don’t think taking grass-fed whey over regular whey is like taking a multivitamin. (12

[Related: Best Macros Calculator For Tracking Muscle Gain and Fat Loss]

You Don’t Have to Take Protein Before, During, or After a Workout

There are many myths perpetuated by 1990s bodybuilding magazines — one of them is that you need to down a protein shake minutes after your workout to feed your starving muscles. While that might not be a bad idea for an Olympia competitor who already has all of their calories, macros, micros, sleep, hormone levels, and everything else dialed in, it doesn’t matter for the average person. Your total calories and macronutrients determine whether you gain muscle and lose fat, not when you eat.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is whey protein powder?

There are two types of protein in milk: whey and casein. The two get separated in the cheesemaking process, and while whey used to be considered something of a waste byproduct, it’s a very high quality protein that can be processed into powder. Usually, flavorings are added to make for a convenient and relatively inexpensive way to consume protein.

What is whey concentrate?

Whey concentrate is the most basic, unprocessed, and inexpensive form of whey protein powder. It also contains the most carbohydrates (including sugar, and lactose) and fat. It’s nonetheless relatively low in carbs and fat, with about two to five grams of each for every 20 to 25 grams of protein.

What's the difference between whey concentrate vs isolate?

Whey concentrate is the least processed kind of whey protein powder, so it has the most carbohydrates and fat. (About three grams each per 20-25 grams of protein.) Whey isolate is further processed in a way that reduces most of the carbs and fat. Some whey isolates contain no carbs or fat whatsoever. This makes it more diets that severely restrict carbohydrates and/or fat, though the taste does suffer somewhat.

Final Word

It wasn’t easy to land on these top picks; we had to weigh ingredients, effectiveness, taste, and many other factors, including how different consumers value totally different qualities in their health supplements. But we’re confident that we’ve selected the best whey protein powders no matter what your reasons are for turning to protein shakes. All we can say now is bottoms up!

References

1. Macnaughton LS, et al. The response of muscle protein synthesis following whole-body resistance exercise is greater following 40 g than 20 g of ingested whey protein. Physiol Rep. 2016 Aug;4(15).
2. Stark M, et al. Protein timing and its effects on muscular hypertrophy and strength in individuals engaged in weight-training. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2012 Dec 14;9(1):54.
3. Norton LE, et al. Leucine content of dietary proteins is a determinant of postprandial skeletal muscle protein synthesis in adult rats. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2012 Jul 20;9(1):67.
4. Breen L, et al. Leucine: a nutrient ‘trigger’ for muscle anabolism, but what more? J Physiol. 2012 May 1;590(9):2065-6.
5. Hamilton-Reeves JM, et al. Clinical studies show no effects of soy protein or isoflavones on reproductive hormones in men: results of a meta-analysis. Fertil Steril. 2010 Aug;94(3):997-1007.
6. Kalman D, et al. Effect of protein source and resistance training on body composition and sex hormones. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2007 Jul 23;4:4.
7. Oben, J et al. An open label study to determine the effects of an oral proteolytic enzyme system on whey protein concentrate metabolism in healthy males. J Int Soc Sports Nutr . 2008 Jul 24;5:10.
8. Potier, M et al. Comparison of digestibility and quality of intact proteins with their respective hydrolysates. J AOAC Int . Jul-Aug 2008;91(4):1002-5.
9. La Terra, S et al. Increasing pasture intakes enhances polyunsaturated fatty acids and lipophilic antioxidants in plasma and milk of dairy cows fed total mix ration. Dairy Sci. Technol. 90, 687–698 (2010).  
10. Dhiman, TR et al. Conjugated linoleic acid content of milk from cows fed different diets. J Dairy Sci . 1999 Oct;82(10):2146-56.
11. Månsson,HL et al. Fatty acids in bovine milk fat. Food Nutr Res . 2008;52.
12. Jude, C et al. The environmental impact of corn-fed vs. grass-fed beef finishing systems. J. Anim. Sci. 88 (E-supplement 2):686.